Brief introduction to the use of PLC in the lathe numerical control transformation -

by:Coolmay     2020-06-09
PLC is widely used in machinery manufacturing equipment control, but in ordinary lathe numerical control transformation, using PLC controller as the core component of numerical control system is a new topic. With the function of PLC technology, constantly improve, this will be a development trend. This paper discussed.

1 lathe numerical control system of PLC control principle, design 1. 1 lathe operation requirements

lathe in machining gyration surface, thread, etc. Its action is usually the X, Z to fast-forward, worker into, retreat quickly. Can automatic, manual processing process, such as car cylindrical and thread conversion; And can perform a single step.

1。 2 PLC digital control system to solve the problem of

lathe operating process is complicated, and generally applies only to the order of the action of PLC control. PLC is used to control the lathe to action, must solve three problems: figure 1

CNC system diagram 1) How to drive the servo signal and X, Z to coordinate action;

2) How to change speed feed system;

3) Threading how to realize the internal contact transmission and the change of the screw thread.

PLC and the control module and the corresponding executive element combination, these problems can be resolved.

1。 3 CNC system control principle of

ordinary lathe numerical control transformation work is to rest, X, Z to feed to the CNC control. According to characteristics of reconstruction, servo element adopts stepper motor, the open-loop control system can meet the requirements. Z pulse equivalent to 0. 01 mm, take 0 X to the pulse equivalent. 005mm。 Choose type transistor output of PLC. Driving a stepper motor pulse signal is produced by programming, produce different frequency pulse by the program to realize variable speed. X, Z to action can be imported by manual or automatic control program. Threading of the pulse signal generated by the spindle pulse generator, with the gate connected to the PLC input after the PLC program of frequency conversion are required for the pulse of lead. Head dislocation, turning into, can be controlled by manual or automatic program. Figure 1 for CNC system schematic diagram.

designed by lathe operation is: the starting point of the total, Z, X to fast forward, standing and retreat quickly; Rest is, reverse; Manual, automatic, single step, threading conversion. Therefore, the input to 14 points. According to the figure 1 output to 9 PM. The I/O connection diagram is shown in figure 2 ( Mitsubishi F1S - 30吨) As an example.

I/O connection diagram in figure 2 3 drivers (

Ladder diagram) Design 3. 1

total program structure design manual, automatic, single step, the choice of threading process adopts the jump instruction. Figure 3 is the total program structure diagram. If closed X12 ( X13, X14, X15 disconnect) , it normally closed off, perform manual procedures; If X12 disconnect, X13, all program skip manual, a pointer to the P0, automatic program execution.

figure 3 total program flowchart is

3. 2 manual program ladder diagram design

manual procedures, automatic program should be based on specific parts design, just to fast forward, the labor with Z into, fast motion as an example to illustrate. The ladder diagram as shown in figure 4.

figure 4 Z to manually program ladder diagram

under perform manual program status, press X0, Y1 through, ready for the start. According to X2, auxiliary relay M0 through. By T63 timing and Y2 contact combination, produce pulse signal for 103/2 I frequency ( I time to time, according to the need to set, the unit for ms) Z, drive to fast forward. When pressing the X3 ( M0 disconnect) , M1 connect, M1 and timer T32 combination makes Y2 for 103/2 j pulse frequency ( j》我) Output by the Y2, implementation work. Press the X4, M0, Y3 connected at the same time, the motor quickly reversed, to achieve fast rewind. Limited space, ladder diagram slightly from other programs.

the complimentary nc lathe application in mechanical manufacturing industry in our country is developing rapidly, but high precision nc machine tools is expensive, and in the actual production of a large number of less complex shape, the general accuracy of parts, which requires the general precision CNC lathe processing. At the same time, our country existing a large number of available ordinary lathe, the lathe numerical control reform is to improve the production efficiency with less investment, and the effective ways to improve business efficiency. Lathe numerical control transformation before using Z80, 8031 chip as the core component of numerical control system, its price is more expensive and complicated system. As lathe numerical control system with PLC, have advantages of low cost, simple system, convenient adjustment, will be widely used.


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